Edible Fruits of the World

Filed under :Edible Fruits

Edible Fruits of the World would seem to be indicative of an ambitious project if we would hope to list the entire range of edible fruits that Nature has provided for us throughout our wonderful planet.

Most of these edible fruits have been discovered and utilised by indigenous populations but there are others yet to be discovered.

Commercial and local markets offer a range of delicious fruits in all countries but perhaps the greatest variety will be found in tropical and subtropical conditions where climate is condusive to cultivation or harvesting from the wild.

We are offering information on a limited selection.

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Filed under :Herbs - Medicinal

Of necessity there would have to be wide experimentation and research required to find the one remedy for a single case of cancer if indeed that was possible. We have observed the many claims of those who follow this ambition but have failed to find ‘the cure’ for the terrible disease that plagues our era.

Allowing that we are now aware of the complexity of the disease we know as Cancer, we are likely to accept that there are many causes of the disease with its wide range of physical manifestations. This will explain the long lists of plant remedies that can be confusing to us. However, each has been found to offer a positive healing result both by those following traditional herbal practice of individuals and cottagers or through the professional experience of those in medical practice.

Health must be built through our personal discipline by following the rules that demand inclusion of hygiene, nutrition, exercise, positive attitude and posture of body and of mind, quality of water and adequate sunshine in a natural environment.

Disease results from us breaking the rules and we must remind ourselves of the natural law under which we all exist, knowing that Nature has no favourites, and each must make personal effort to create good health and of course seek remedies and professional advice when we are needing it.  Basically we have the task of first looking after ourselves.

This requires a change in attitude by many of us who have accepted the present trend to go to a doctor or a chemist for a drug that will give us immediate relief from any ailment. . But there is a penalty we must pay for each unnatural substance consumed or to which we are subjected. In the case of drugs, it is the unwelcome ‘side effects’ of modern medicines that in fact leave us open to new symptoms and discomforts, and sometimes very severe ones.

In contrast the natural plant medicines in their entirety, that is without human chemical interference, are to be seen as the finest range of medicines available to us as consumers. Many plant medicines can be taken through our regular diet or by concentration in specific form whether it is the simple state of powdered bark, liquid extract or juice, salads, sprouted seeds, nuts grains and the many fruits and vegetables that are available to us.

These natural plant foods and medicines must retain top priority if we wish to experience a healthy vital life.


The following lists a sample of plant genera that contain species that are either well known and used in herbal science or are included amongst those plants under investigation in the treatment of cancer.

Acacia farnesiana – Acacia root used by natives in treatment of stomach cancer

Aconitum napellusAconite, Monkshood is a highly toxic plant but used successfully in homoeopathic form to treat cancer.

Achronychia baueriScrub YellowoodanAustralian plant under intensive investigation as a cure for cancer

Agropyron repensCouchgrass advised with Hydrangea for prostate benign or cancerous

Allium sativumGarlic is a cottage remedy to prevent cancer and is proven highly effective particular where it is demonstrated in medical institutes in Japan and China.

Aloe verathejuice is taken internally for cancer of gastro-intestinal tract

Althaea officinalisMarshmallow roots heals internal cancers, and is a soothing medicine upon cancers of the digestive tract

Amyema– an Australian Mistletoe with similar curative properties for cancer as the traditional European Mistletoe, Viscum album.

Arctium lappa – Burdock a traditional herb as a preventative against cancer

Aristolochia ssp– Dutchman’s Pipe – is generally considered too toxic but fine potential for future

Artemesia – Ragwort, Wormwood some species in the genus are promising in treatment of cancer, breast cancer in particular  and  also Aids. A common medicine used in China

Astragalus membranaceus – the roots of Milk Vetch have potential to prevent and are used to cure cancer in China by increasing anti-cancer cells

Atropa belladonna– Belladonna, Deadly Nightshade is prescribed in homoeopathic form and is considered too toxic otherwise.

Balsamodendron syn Commiphora – Myrrh is an ancient cure once applied for cancer

Bambusaspp.– Bamboo – certain species known and used medicinally in China have a degree of success in treating cancer

Benincasa– Wax Gourd has fruit is regarded as having anticancer properties and also used in treating cancer

Berberis aquifolium, B. vulgaris – Oregon Grape, Barbary are important in offering anticancer medicine

Beta vulgaris– Beetroot – the top of the vegetable bulb and the beetroot juice is claimed to effect cancer cures

Brassica spp. most in the genus possess potential as medicine to treat cancer including broccoli.

Callitrisspp. are being trialled for use in treating cancerous tumours

Calvatia gigantea, Langermannia gigantia Giant Puffball is a proven remedy in cancer in animals claimed effective in 14 different types of cancer

Camellia sinensisGreen Tea is under experiment in US in treating leukaemia

Camptocheca acuminata a Chinese tree with potential to treat leukaemia

Cannabis sativa–ancient medicine for cancer and in modern medicine to ease effects of chemotherapy.

Carduus benedictus– Holy Thistle and other species are used with success and claimed to regenerate liver cells.

Carica papaya– Pawpaw for skin or dermal cancers when leaves and sap are being used

Castanospermum australe– Black Bean Tree, seeds have potential to cure and counter HIV virus

Catharanthus roseus – Madagascar Periwinkle used with success in treatment of various cancers but particularly famed for its use in curing Leukaemia.

Chelidonium majus -Greater Celandine, Swallowort, isused to treat liver cancer but only prescribed with care by professionals.

Cnicus benedictusHoly Thistleis a general traditional medicine including for cancer

Conium maculatumHenbaneto reduce advanced cancer pain and stress in terminal patients.

Cratageus cuneataHawthorn for treatment of ovarian cancers

Curcuma longa – Tumeric is a root providing a kitchen spice and is traditionally valued as a substance that prevents cancer. C. zedoaria Zedoary for treatment of cervical cancer/

Cuscuta trifoliiDodder species are in commonuse treating cancer




Filed under :Agriculture, Australian Plants, Poisonous Plants

There is a vital need for farmers to communicate with local authorities in local areas. Local conditions and agricultural habits are important and can moderate or intensify the need for keen pasture management. According to the nature of stock different plants cause a differing degree of threat and some animals such as pigs may be immune when compared with others such as horses.
Animal suffering poisoning are often in extreme pain and discomfort often beyond veterinary aid.
Then IMMEDIATE removal of stock from affected pastures is often the only option.
Mother of Millions (Kalanchoe tubiflora)–can cause almost immediate death by hear failure. Worst cases occur when the plant is flowering. This is exacerbated when stock are hungry.
Symptoms are painful – tucking in abdomen – groaning – respiratory stress, diarrhoea and weakness
Green Cestrum (Cestrum parqui)–causes death, sometimes suddenly, by liver damage
Symptoms – abdominal pain, ataxia, convulsions, paralysis and eventual coma
Poison Peach (Trema aspera)– also causes death from liver damage
Symptoms – similar to the above but also associated with anorexia, tremors, and lying down before coma.
Oleander (Nerium oleander)– all parts of the plant are poisonous and cause heart failure
Symptoms – diarrhoea, developing stages of paralysis, heart rate irregular before death.
Boobialla (Myoporum acuminatum)– causes death from liver failure within days.
Symptoms – swelling under the jaw, drowsy, confused, respiratory difficulty, jaundice, haemorrhage before death.
Red Head Cotton Bush (Asclepias curassavica) – produces particularly poisonous flowers.
Symptoms – bloody stool and diarrhoea, disturbed breathing, irregular heartbeat, death.
Setaria (Setaria sphacelata)–Slower levels of onset of kidney failure and drop in blood calcium
Symptoms – coma and death
Grain Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) – when stressed plants can cause death by cyanide poisoning,
Symptoms – are staggering, twitches, collapse and death follows, leaving blood bright red
Wild Oats, Ryegrass( Lolium spp) and other common grasses when balancing of clover pasture is not present– can cause death by nitrate poisoning. This can also occur following herbicide application. There is a complex range of distressing symptoms.
Symptoms – Blood will be brownish colour, salivation, bloat and abdominal pain, muscle tremors or spasms, respiration forced and rapid, convulsions, coma and death.
Kikuyu (Pennisetum clandestinum) – is usually related to seasonal conditions and after dry conditions
Symptoms – bloat, salivation, unable to drink although burying mouth in water, rapid and increasing breath rate, dehydration and staggering with death eventually through cardiac arrest.
Blue-green Algae – or cyanobacteria causes sudden death when quantity is ingested from polluted water sources.
Symptoms – respiratory difficulties, muscle tremors, bloody, watery diarrhoea, convulsions, death inside 24 hours.
Fireweed (Senecio spp) – produces alkaloid poisoning that affects liver and kidneys and is slow to develop with sudden severe symptoms. Spraying pasture increases toxicity as with most pasture plants.
Symptoms – loss of weight and condition, rectal prolapse, diarrhoea, jaundice, sometimes seeking shade because of photosensitisation
Lantana (Lantana camara)– the red strain, the declared noxious weed, is specially toxic
Symptoms – photosensitisation, and reddening skin, jaundice, dehydration, poor appetite, sluggish movement.
St John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum var. angustifolium) – is a declared noxious weed that can cause great discomfort to the mouth
Symptoms – Tongue and the whole mouth can be irritated and sore and peeling of skin around areas of skin affected in unpigmented areas of the body

Black Bean (Castanospermum australe)– seeds when ingested can be fatal
Coffee Senna (Senna occidentalis) – the seeds also can decrease muscle tone, cause slow gait and show red coloured urine
Bracken Fern (Pteridium esculentum)is notorious in causing blood problems and death by haemorrhages
NEUROLOGICAL SYMPTOMS (in addition to plants previously mentioned
Paspalum spp – all are susceptible to the ergot fungus (Claviceps paspali)causing Ergot poisoning
Symptoms cause trembling, lack of co-ordination, aggressive behaviour and finally complete paralysis.
Zamia (Macrozamia spp) – the fronds and seeds although are found palatable are also toxic and care must be taken
Symptoms -can be loss of strength in hindquarters, staggers, diarrhoea.



Filed under :Edible Plants, Gardens

There is already a great interest in general horticulture both in domestic and in landscaping of public parks and work places. There has also been an effort to increase the cultivation of edible plants instead of a focus upon ornamentals. One writer in the U.S., the agro-forester Craig Elevitch, left us back in 1998 with an article “Leaves to Live By: Perennial Leaf Vegetables” from which the following notes are taken and hopefully, already acted upon by many gardeners, to their benefit.

In an effort to reduce the time and labour of vegetable growing, it is possible to concentrate upon perennial plants with edible leaves either as fillers or as shrubs and hedges. Critical to this plan is the clear botanical identification of the plants under consideration rather than those where it is customary to call by common names that vary in different localities and countries. This is usually advised in addition to any traditional local wisdom as to the plants’ uses.

Choices from the large range of potential plants will be governed by whether shrubs are desired, low growing edible vegetables, others that can serve as screens or those selected for their additional value as attractive ornamentals.
He suggests it is best to first depend upon the most tender shoots or growing tip and the young leaves that are generally sweeter to the taste and to introduce into the personal diet, only a few leaves at one time in order to judge one’s own digestion as well as palatability. Greater care is required with tropical species as they are likely to have a degree of toxicity nature has designed within their components to deter insect pests so abundant in hot countries.
In some cases it is best to cook the leaves for a short time and reference is available as to how long should be given in the different popular subtropical and tropical perennial vegetables.

He stresses the ease in such a garden where plucking a few leaves regularly for the kitchen provides a natural pruning that increases proliferation of new shoots. It provides a less demanding method of providing edibles than common garden vegetables.

It is an idea that has been put forward by others including those who have sought to establish community useful gardens using edible fruits and plants rather than those with merely ornamental value. The method has also proven successful in Australia and India under the direction of people such as Bill Mollison.

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Filed under :Australian Plants, Useful Plants

Oil of Eucalyptus is sourced from only a few of the 700 species native to Australia. The Aborigines were used leaf infusions to release the oil in treating certain diseases.
Two surgeons of the First Fleet from England to the new colony are reported to have distilled the oil from the ‘gum trees’ as they became commonly known, found on the shores of Port Jackson in 1788. It was found helpful to subsequent colonists but did not earn any wider interest for some time.
The original commercial oil of eucalyptus was predominantly from the Tasmanian Blue Gum or Eucalyptus globulus when production commenced in 1852 by Joseph Bosisto. He commenced with a small still at Dandenong Creek, Victoria and by 1865 it was being exported to England and quickly expanded to other countries in the Commonwealth.
By the 1870s oil from the Tasmanian blue gum was being exported worldwide and dominated world trade, although other species were also being distilled to a lesser extent. By the late nineteenth century surgeons were using eucalyptus oil as an antiseptic during surgery and advising its use in hospitals and homes.
As the uses and benefits of this oil became known it was to increase interest in many other countries who established plantations that were quick growing and promised a future for local industry. Successful plantings included Spain, South Africa, Brazil and Chile. Although the E. globulus was the major species cultivated, others such as E. polybractea or the Blue-leaf Mallee and E. kochi were also included.
The list of suitable species was growing according to specific differences identified between the properties and the volume of oil that could be anticipated from each. Research in this field naturally continued in Australia, well placed to test many of the natural native species.
The uses of eucalyptus were in the meanwhile becoming wider by experiment and experience beyond the original professed health benefits and purification of the atmosphere.Through chemical analysis, practical application and the increased appreciation of each unique species demand intensified throughout the twentieth century. There were distinct needs in the market –
Medicinal, (syrups, lozenges, embrocations, liniments, aromatherapy, massage, inhalants, antiseptic, dentistry);
Perfume (personal, aerosol sprays, toiletries, domestic antiseptic);
Industrial (machinery, mining ,stain removal) ;
Insect deterrents and insecticide (including some environmental applications for insect control such as mosquitoes in swamplands).

The potential for the benefits of Eucalyptus Oil may seem almost limitless and mention must be made here that although it has been employed in foods and flavouring it must be remembered that direct ingestion of the oil can prove not only toxic but life threatening and we should therefore consider its properties and use care.

At present the world market is dominated by oil from China but it is not considered to be of high grade quality as that produced in other countries that are able to meet the required levels of cineole.

Global annual production of eucalyptus oil is estimated at 3,000 tonnes. Australian share in this is less than expected in the land of origin of the trees, but as production costs are higher compared with other countries the industry is somewhat neglected.

However the Bosisto brand of the well known original Australian product still remains in the market as a symbol of quality.

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Filed under :Australian Plants, General

Australia’s National Emblem is Golden Wattle Acacia pycnantha

Australian Capital Territory A.C.T. Royal Bluebell Wahlenbergia gloriosa
Northern Territory N.T. “Outback Australia” Sturt’s Desert Rose Gossypium sturtianum

New South Wales N.S.W. ‘The First State” Waratah Telopea speciosissima
Victoria Vic. “The Garden State” Pink Heath Epacris impressa
Queensland Qld. “The Sunshine State” Cooktown Orchid Vappodes phalaenopsis
South Australia SA. “The Festival State” Sturt’s Desert Pea Swainsona formosa
Western Australia W.A. “The State of Excitement” Kangaroo Paw Anigozanthos manglesii
Tasmania TAS. “The Holiday Isle” Tasmanian Blue Gum Eucalyptus globulus



Filed under :Edible Flowers, Flower Food

It is only recently that attention has come to western consumers that there are certain flowers that offer additional interest and taste sensations to the familiar diet.
Because many flowers and plants are poisonous, at least to some degree, in some of its parts, it is essential to know which blossoms are safe to eat and those to be avoided, even as garnishing.
There are many and varied common names used in different countries and societies where tradition serves to remind one of their use, either as fresh flowers or in cooking.
The following is a sample list of flowers usually well known by common name but needing the botanical identification to be sure before being eaten with confidence.
Abutilon, Lantern Bush Abutilon esculentum buds battered and fried without the calyx
Acacia Acacia dealbata and other spp. Candied in syrup
Banana Musa sapientum buds and flowers in savoury dishes
Basil Ocimum basilicum and other spp. For garnishing, and salads
Borage Borago officinalis its beautiful blue flowers in drinks and candied
Broad Bean Vicia faba flowering tips and buds cooked as a vegetable
Calendula, Marigold Calendula officinalis petals as saffron substitute or soups
Carnation Gillyflowers, Dianthus caryophyllus petals in wine after removal of bitter base
Chamomile Anthemis nobilis in herb tea or candied for garnishing
Chrysanthemum Chrysanthemum coronariam, after blanching flowerhead, pluck petals.
Dandelion Taraxacum sp. buds pickled, petals on salads
Day Lilies Hemerocallus fulva petals eaten fresh
Elder Sambucus nigra flower heads for fritters and drinks or vinegar
Feijoa Feijoa sellowiana fleshy edible flower petals are perfumed
Geranium, Pelargonium spp. edible and for garnishing
Gladioli Gladiolus sp. flowers to hold dips, decorative
Hawthorn Crataegus oxyacantha steeped in brandy for a period of months as flavouring for sweets
Hibiscus Hibiscus sabdariffa buds and petals in fritters, drinks, salads
Hollyhock Althaea rosea petals fresh and buds cooked, Also a tea in China
Hops Humulus lupulus dried flowers into beer and drinks and herb tea for sleep
*Jasmine Jasminum officinale, J. sambac white flowers only to flavour desserts, tea and wine
Lavender Lavendula vera and other spp. used in wide range of foods, tea, sweets, garnishing
Lotus Nelumbo nucifera whole flower edible stamens perfume tea, flowers for rice, petals as snack.
Motherwort Leonurus cardiaca Japanese festive flowers sipped into saki served with rice, also jam and syrup
Nasturtium, Indian Cress Tropaeolum majus petals in salads, buds pickled, seeds as capers pickled
Orange Citrus sinensis petals in ice cream, conserve and syrups after preparation
Primrose Primula sp candied flowers and puddings
Rose Rosa spp.petals are eaten after rejection of bitter base. Buds pickled or in various dishes. Rose hips to make jelly and drinks.
Squash Cucurbita pepo, Cucumis spp flowers stuffed as savoury dishes and fritters
Sunflower Helianthus annuus young buds cooked as artichoke hearts. Petals raw or pickled.
Sweet Olive Osmanthus fragrans flowers dried to flavour tea as in Schoulang Tea
Violet Viola odorata, Viola tricolor candied or raw with salad or sweet jelly and in wine
Yucca Yucca filamentosa flower in cooking, crystallised and in making doughnuts.

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Weedkillers a Cause of Autism

Filed under :Pest Plants


A warning by a senior research scientist from MIT warns that a huge 50% of children born in the U.S. will suffer with autism by the year 2025. Present statistics show one in every 68 children in the U.S is born with autism.
One wonders what possible factor can cause such an increase of this disease and the culprit is generally cited as the company Monsanto that sells and distributes the popularly used Round-Up herbicide containing glyphosate a toxic weedkiller.
Glyphosate in the food supply is a factor in disease of Alzheimer’s, cancer, cardiovascular disease, nutrional deficiencies and autism in children.
Mothers should read the work of Stephanie Seneff, PhD a research biologist with many published articles pointing to this problem as well as GMO’s as a major contributor to neurological disease in children, once rare but now prevalent in the community.

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Dangers of Antibiotics

Filed under :General, Herbs - Medicinal

The regular and the rare adverse reactions from antibiotics are well known amongst members of the public who have suffered additional symptoms to their original health problem following medication by drugs . It has become so common that anyone taking any manufactured drug is expected to receive a list of possible range of reactions to the drug and so made aware of the possible negative effects. The patient’s state of health following medication should be monitored by the doctor to ascertain whether there should be a need for an advisable alternative.
With the advent of antibiotics, drugs became a household word. The seemingly miraculous benefits from the earlier use of well known drugs was appreciated to the extent that patients, unaware of the medical complexities were known to request from the doctor a prescription of antibiotics as their own remedy.
Because of its deserved claim to fame as a remedy for some serious illnesses, antibiotics over a period of time became over-used and an unfortunate situation developed. Disease conditions that previously had produced a remarkable improvement after antibiotics began to have little or no effect. So began the existence of the ‘superbug’ emerging in conditions becoming resistant to the medication.
Many of the previous reliable drugs in this category are not expected to offer the same positive results. The search for the wonder remedies in chemically manufactured substances continues but with many specialists and medical researchers urging a more cautious attitude to prescriptions of drugs.
In this climate more and more individuals are understandably disenchanted with the risks involved in medicinal drugs and turning to the safer and reliable natural herbal home remedies.



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Filed under :General

Portland, Oregon has joined at least seven other cities in banning the usage of neonicotinoids, a class of insecticides that many scientists think is behind colony collapse disorder and the premature death and dysfunction of many bees and other pollinating insects. The ban applies to all city lands and will be enforced despite the opposition of some nearby farmers who claim neonicotinoids are critical for producing their food crops.
The ever-expanding number of members of the neonicotinoid family are all relative newcomers in the insecticide world. The first commercial neonicotinoid, imidacloprid, appeared in 1985 and is still in use today.
Neonicotinoids are highly neurotoxic, sharing a common mode of action that affects the central nervous system of insects, resulting in their paralysis and death. Pollinating insects are essential for the growth of numerous crops, including apples, plums, broccoli, peppers, cabbage, Brazil nuts, and cashews.
In 2008, neonicotinoids were scrutinized for their environmental impact in Germany, where they were linked with several adverse ecological effects. In 2013, the EU and some other European countries banned use of certain members of the neonicotinoid family.
Meanwhile, the USDA took a broad look into the decline of bee colonies in the country. Their report highlighted the fact that in 1990, there were 3 million bee colonies. By 2013, that number had dropped to 2.5 million, demonstrating that the collapse is a long-term issue. Though their report was dire for insects and people, it did not offer any immediate solutions. Soon after it was released, the EPA approved a fourth generation neonicotinoid, known as sulfoxaflor, an action that left many followers of the situation dumbfounded.
In 2014, tens of millions of bees were found dead in Ontario Canada, just days after a planting of genetically modified corn. Ontario’s The Post reported that the crops were sprayed with neonicotinoids produced by Bayer CropScience. The air seeding of neonicotinoid-treated GM corn was seen as and accelerating factor in the bee losses. It is likely that in most parts of North America the reason neonicotinoids continue to be permitted is heavy influence from the chemical industry.
Because the federal government has refused to do anything about the havoc being caused by neonicotinoids, dealing with it has become the province of the states and municipalities. In 2013, Eugene Oregon was the first city to ban its use. Since then, efforts have centered around the Pacific Northwest, with Seattle and Spokane in Washington joining in.
One recent example can be seen with Amanda Fritz, Commissioner of Portland, who was successful in gaining approval of the measure to ban neonicotinoids on city lands such as gardens and municipal parks by presenting it as a public health issue requiring emergency action.
“I think we’re doing another good thing for the city of Portland, Oregon…and maybe the entire world,” she said.
Her opponents, who included Oregonians for Food and Shelter, a coalition of farmers, and other pesticide users, were of the view that other research had refuted the notion that bees have been harmed and killed by neonicotinoids.
This article originally appeared at Natural Society.



Filed under :General


Family: is a category above the level of a Genus.
Genus: is a category above the level of a species but below the level of a Family.
Species: is a category below the level of a genus. It refers to plants of a particular group that are reproductively separate from others within their genera.

Sub-species: a category below the level of a Species –distinct from within a Species. Often used as a synonym of ‘variety’.
Hybrid: relative to, or the progeny of a cross-fertilization by parents with different genetic systems.
Cultivar: an artificially contrived result of horticultural breeding or genetic engineering by human intervention.

Achene: is a one seeded, dry fruit which does not open at maturity
Acute: leaf tip has a sharp angle
Annual: a plant with life cycle of one season
Aril: is an extra covering around a seed – sometimes fleshy
Axil: the angle formed where a leaf joins the stem
Bi-pinnate: referring to leaves which are on either side of the stalk and each leaflet again divided in a similar manner
Bract: is a modified leaf, sometimes coloured, resembling petals
Bulbil: a small bulb which can appear at leaf joints or stems
Calyx: is the outer whorl of the perianth and is comprised of individual sepals
Capsule: a dry fruit which splits open to release the seeds
Compound leaf: is divided into two or more leaflets
Cordate: a heart shaped leaf
Corm: is an enlarged, fleshy, rounded stem base, often with membranous scales.
Corolla: a collective term of all the entire circle of petals of a flower
Corymb: flat topped inflorescence – outer flowers are first to open
Crenate: describes a leaf with scalloped edges
Cuneate: wedge shaped leaf
Cyme: a terminal flower cluster where the top flowers open first
Cymose: indicates a plant bearing cymes where the central flower opens first before successive blooming outward
Deciduous: losing its leaves in autumn/winter
Dentate: shaped like a tooth – the edges or margins of leaves
Digitate: arranged like fingers on a hand with 5 or so segments or leaflets
Drupe: a fleshy juicy fruit containing one seed or hard stone
Endemic: confined to a particular region or country
Entire: In reference to a leaf indicates a smooth, continuous edge or margin without indentations.
Epiphyte: a plant with aerial roots growing unattached to earth
Escape: a plant growing away from its natural habitat in the wild or introduced accidentally into a country

Evergreen: self explanatory – a non deciduous plant or tree

Exotic: from a foreign country intentionally introduced and cultivated
Floret: is a small flower within an inflorescence or flower cluster
Fungus: is a plant without chlorophyll or leaves, e.g mushroom
Glaucous: leaf of grey/green colour and paler bloom which rubs off
Globose: is a spherical shape
Herb: a seeding non-woody usually annual plant, including many with culinary or medicinal uses
Herbaceous: a perennial plant which dies down after flowering
Hirsute: covered with long hairs
Hoary: covered with minute white hairs – a greyish appearance
Lanceolate: lance shaped leaves with rounded base, broadest at the centre and three or more times as long as broad, tapered to a more or less acute tip
Leaflet: a segment or unit of a compound leaf
Linear: long, narrow, grass-like leaves
Node: that junction of the stem where leaves or bracts are attached
Obovate: leaves paddle shaped and widest past the middle
Obtuse: a leaf tip not tapering to a point
Ovate: Leaves are egg shaped, attached to stem at the broader end
Ovoid: Oval in shape usually referring to a fruit
Ovule: female structure of a seed bearing plant
Palmate: a leaf with the shape of a hand, having five to seven leaflets or lobes attached at the same central point as digits
Panicle: is a branched compound flower cluster or spray
Pedicel: the stalk of a single flower
Peduncle: stalk of a compound flower head
Peltate: shield shaped with stalk of leaf attached centrally or away from the margin
Perennial: a plant with life of more than 2 years
Perianth: The single or double whorl of leaf- or bract-like parts of a calyx and corolla.
Pericarp: surrounds the seed in fleshy fruits called drupes
Petiole: the stalk of an individual leaf
Phyllode: a flattened leaf stalk functioning as a leaf
Plume: a feathery plant with single tuft
Pod: a dry, usually elongated fruit which splits to release seeds at maturity.

Pungent: ending in a stiff sharp point (usually of a leaf)
Raceme: inflorescence or flower cluster of stalked flowers arranged along the length of a hanging stem
Rachis: the main stalk of a flower cluster or compound leaf with leaflets such as a fern frond
Recurved: curved leaves or petals turned backwards
Reflexed: sharply curved or turned backwards
Reniform: kidney shaped
Reticulate: a system of networked veins in a leaf
Rhizome: an underground stem
Scorpoid: coiled form usually relating to an infloresence
Sepal: a single leaf-like member of the calyx
Serrate: margins of a leaf with sharp pointed teeth
Sessile: without a stalk
Spadix: is thick elongated raceme of sessile flowers on a central flower spike typical of the Araceae family
Spathe: is that which surrounds the spadix of the arum type plants and is actually a bract, sheathing the base
Spike: is a common expression for flower cluster with stalkless flowers alternating along an elongated inflorescence
Stamen: the male pollen bearing sexual organ of a flower
Stellate: star shaped
Stigma: the female part of a flower which receives pollen
Style: is that part of the flower which transmits pollen to the ovaries where seed is produced.
Tendril: is a modified thread like leaf or stem used by a plant in climbing
Terminal: at the end of a stem or branch
Trifoliate: leaves structured in groups of three as a clover
Trumpet shaped: flower of an expanding tubular form with petals flaring at the mouth
Tube: in relation to a flower has a fused calyx or corolla
Umbel: flower cluster with flat top each flower arising from the same point. Sometimes found as a compound umbel where several umbels arise from a terminal point on the stem

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